¿Para cuándo se considera que el coche eléctrico será mayoritario en las carreteras del mundo?

sobre los EV:

Las baterías están bajando de costo, la autonomía está aumentando progresivamente, aumentan las estaciones de carga. Estos autos tienen menor costo de mantenimiento y el recargarlos no es tan costoso (que son los costos más fuertes en uno de combustión interna). Diversos países han comenzado a imponer metas en la fabricación y/o venta de vehículos eléctricos.

No dudes que en los siguientes 20 años ocurra lo que preguntas. Posiblemente esta primera década estará llena de inconformes que todavía no ven las ventajas (la que siempre claman es que demora mucho en cargar, sin pensar que muchos de los viajes se hacen con menos de una carga pues son viajes dentro de la ciudad). Pero a medida que aumente la autonomía de estos vehículos o se creen métodos para intercambiar las baterías se irá desvaneciendo esta justificación.

Definitivamente es el futuro, hoy recién los estamos comenzando a usar. Y, a propósito, no es lo único. Las cosas van más allá: vehículos compartidos, vehículos autónomos, etc. Lo mejor está por venir.

El estado actual: vehículos de combustión interna de bajo aprovechamiento de la energía, para trasladar a una persona y para tenerlo estacionado la mayor parte del tiempo, eso tiene que cambiar.

¿Cuándo estarán disponibles los coches 100% eléctricos capaces de recorrer más de 800 km sin recargar, como es capaz de hacer cualquier motor diésel en la actualidad?

mi anterior vehículo de diésel hacía de 1000 a 1100kms con una tanqueada. 800 es realmente muy poco. Era un Citröen Picasso de 2.0L.

Y por qué la diferencia? Porque quizá tenía un tanque más grande? o una tecnología más moderna.

Recorrer 800kms en un eléctrico depende de la carga que pueda almacenar la batería, si tuviera una buena densidad para almacenar más carga cabría mayor carga en un determinado volumen. Otra variante es ponerle más baterías y hacerlo más pesado y costoso de manejar.

Lo importante es que cada vez se ve más y más avances en la autonomía de los autos eléctricos, antes alcanzar 60km era un logro, hoy 150–180 es algo normal mientras hay otros que superan los 400 de autonomía. Seguramente en 5 o 10 años iremos viendo mayores autonomías producto de mejoras en las baterías, disminución del factor de arrastre (resistencia al viento), más cantidad de baterías, mejores técnicas de recuperación de energía, mejores técnicas de manejo, mejores técnicas de carga (imagínate cargar a través de la carretera estilo esos cargadores inalámbricos de celular, etc)

Hay mucho por dónde se puede sacar mayor autonomía.

¿Comprarías un coche eléctrico? ¿Por qué si o por qué no? Que modelos y marcas considerarías?

no sólo lo compraría sino que lo he comprado, tengo un Kia Soul EV y me ayuda mucho a ahorrar tiempo: no tengo que gastar tiempo en ponerle gasolina, sino que se carga mientras duermo y no tengo que gastar tiempo continuamente con mantenientos pues lleva muy muy poco mantenimiento (una revisión cada 15mil kms). Esto sin hablar de beneficios económicos en gastos, ni el poco calor que genera, bajo ruido que hace, etc.

Luego de 3 años usándole me siento muy contento con mi carro eléctrico que uso absolutamente todos los días. Y no tengo la menor intención de venderlo.

Sobre marcas para comprar, en sentido general yo buscaría siguiendo este orden:

Que venden en tu país. En mi caso vendían el Renault Tweeze y el Kia Soul EV.

Sirve para el fin que lo quiero? Si lo quiero para hacer viajes muy largos continuamente que me obliguen a hacer paradas para cargarlo posiblemente no sea lo apropiado hoy en día. Si es para ir diariamente al trabajo y los fines de semana alrededor de la ciudad, posiblemente sí.

Qué relación hay entre el precio y la autonomía? No es lo mismo comprar un auto que tenga 200kms de autonomía y cueste 50mil USD a uno que tenga 180kms de autonomía y cueste 35mil USD. Posiblemente, POSIBLEMENTE, me quede con el de 180kms de autonomía porque pagar 15mil más por 20kms más de autonomía no me representa.

En mi caso fue fácil pues el Kia Soul EV tenía 180–200kms de autonomía, varios años de garantía, me permitía trasladar a 5 personas. Mientras que el tweeze me permitía unos 60–100kms de autonomía y era solamente para dos pasajeros. Mientras que no me ofrecía las condiciones adecuadas para mi, como por ejemplo no tenía vidrios, no tenía aire acondicionado, etc.

¿Cuánto cuesta asegurar un automóvil eléctrico?

aquí en Ecuador me han cobrado lo mismo que uno de combustión interna. Los seguros miran los riesgos que pueden correr los autos en su día a día, esto es: le chocan, le roban, le rayan, le destruyen alguna parte, etc. Y casi todo eso se puede aplicar al eléctrico.

Digo “casi todo” porque es más difícil robárselo e ir muy lejos.

¿A cuántas universidades se postuló?

A ninguna. En Cuba se postula a un grupo de carreras.

Haces un grupo de exámenes según la carrera postulada y se asignan un grupo de plazas para cada carrera por provincia. Según la provincia una carrera de estudia en una determinada universidad.

Yo postule a:
• Informática , eran 5 plazas para toda la provincia. Era carrera nacional solo se estudiaba en ISPJAE, La Habana.
• Telecomunicaciones, eran algo así como 12 o 18 plazas. Los de mi provincia estudiaron en la UCLV, Santa Clara.
• Automática. UCLV
• Eléctrica, la universidad de Camagüey tiene la carrera.

Al ser todas ingenierías hice los 3 exámenes de las ingenierías en ese momento (matemáticas, física y química)

De todos los aspirantes a informática obtuve la 3ra mejor nota. Así que accedí a informática.

Comencé la carrera con 18 añitos. En medio del periodo especial. Siempre hambreado y mal vestido… pero con unas ilusiones enormes y un amor a la carrera gigantesco. 1992–1997

Pregunta: ¿Será Guantánamo regresado a Cuba algún día?

La provincia de Guantánamo es parte de Cuba, la ciudad de Guantánamo igualmente.

Supongo hables de la base naval de guantánamo que es un espacio de tierra a ambos lados de la Bahía de Guantánamo que utiliza EEUU desde hace unos 100 años, inicialmente como base de abastecimiento de carbón para sus buques.

Eventualmente regresará. No hay nada eterno. un día incluso desaparecerán los países, las personas, o se unirán países o continentes bajo un sólo gobierno, etc

Ahora me imagino hablas un poco enmarcado dentro del conflicto o la situación actual en la que Cuba no quiere esa base y EEUU dice que está a través de un convenio, etc, etc. Bueno, eventualmente un día igual podría desocuparse por parte del gobierno norteamericano si es desaparece el interés, buscan una forma de no tener gastos inútiles o ya no existe por parte de ellos la necesidad de esta base. Aunque no veo ni medianamente cercana esa posibilidad al día de hoy.

How old were you when you first learned to code, and what intrigued your interest in it?

I was, around 12 years old (1986 maybe). I remember my interests were cycling, reading, watching movies, thinking on going to the beach and stuff like that.

In Cuba we had no computers at home back then, but there were places named Joven Club de Computación (let’s call them “computer’s club”).

Well one day my father told me to visit a computer’s club near home because a son of one of his coworkers worked there. He though it will be a good opportunity to learn about computers, because computers will be the future and so on and so on, you know.. all the blah blah blah your parents always used to say.

Well I said “yes I will go” but I actually never went.. I was interested in cycling and roaming around the city, etc, etc.

So one day my dad asked me: have you visited the computer’s club?

ME: “No dad.. I have not”.

Dad: “Well my dear you take your bike RIGHT NOW and GO STRAIGHT TO THE COMPUTER’S CLUB AND ASK FOR LUIS AND BRING THIS PIECE OF PAPER WITH HIS NAME SIGNED BY HIM, OTHERWISE I WILL TAKE THE SH…. OUT OF YOU!!!” he yelled.

My God, I got really scared and went to …. that place….I was really upset… I asked for Luis, he showed up : “oh you are Ernesto, come on.. you know what: Im busy right now but read this book and try to apply what the book says by using this computer”. He showed me how to start the computer and left to the upper floor.

It was an MSX “intelligent keyboard” (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MSX) and the book was about an introduction to programming in MSX Basic… and I sat there for I don’t remember how many hours; actually learning how to start a program in MSX Basic, the first “hello world”, how to run my program, what a variable was… conditionals, loops, and so on… I don’t know: I sat there like 8 hours, until Luis showed up again and asked me if I wanted to save my program, and taught me to save to a cassette in a tape recorder. (oh, and he signed the paper Dad asked me to bring back.. or I didn’t ask him for? I don’t recall now).

Anyway: I was totally amazed!! I could order to computer to do things… I could cycle, or print strings depending on a conditional statement, and so on and so on. Solve math of physics ecuations, code and print my biorhytm (remember that?), well it took me some time to do it but I ended up doing whatever i wanted with the computers.

Oh…. after a couple of week it was dad who was going to the Club to pick me up and to force me to go home to “eat something”

I went to the club as soon as it openned at 8 or 9am, and left only when they kicked me out of it at 10pm or when dad went to force me out of the club. I was even given the keys to stay during lunch break of the Club’s workers.

That was how I started… a brief summary of how I started in fact.

How did the soldiers and generals who participated in the blockade during the Cuban Missile Crisis feel? Were they nervous?

My father was called to serve into the Cuban army, immediately. Dad remember they were ready.. he was serving at an aiti aircraft mortar battery.

They were very concerned, they were totally sure they were about to die, that the invasion was imminent, that it was the end for everybody. Very somber moments, very sad thoughts should have crossed their minds. He recalls an (or several I don’t remember) American plane flying at very high speed and low altitude “to scare us”. (http://www.vfp62.com/cuban.html)

Well, at the end it didn’t happen …. and I was able to born 12 years later.

Update: 2018 06 14:

I went to Cuba last month and talked to my parents about this question:

Dad says it was a mortar section, not anti aircraft
They were near the beach, supposedly to repel attempts of american troops to reach the sea shore.
mom says she was not scared… she was guarding the university building in Santa Clara’s Central University. Dad looked at her like if she was talking non-sense and reaffirmed that they (the male group in the mortars section) were truly concerned.
He was the one in charge of sending the coordinates to the mortar crew

What was it like to live in Cuba just before the collapse of the Soviet Union?

I am cuban, I was born in 1974 and I was ~16 when the SU collapsed. Your question is what was it like to live in Cuba just before the collapse of the SU”. We will have to define “before” … how much is before? a month? A year, 4 years? I will assume “before” as being the last 8–9 years. From 1983 to 1991 (SU actually fell on Dec 24th 1991). Im plainly saying what I felt, what I lived there…

I will write about what was to live in Cuba for me and my family. Im pretty sure everybody has a different story to tell. Im not judging the ability of the government to maintain that way of living or whether there were other people that did different better (or worse) things.

Around 1983–1984 Cuba was a paradise to me. Firstly because it was the only country I knew of I had no other ways to compare what was to live in other countries. I lived my childhood in Camagüey City, 570kms east of Havana. To me visiting Havana was the non-plus ultra!!! In Havana they had a zoo with well fed animals (remember : before SU fall), a botanical garden, lots of shops we hadn’t in Camagüey so we could buy chocolates and stuff like that. Havana smelled to me like car’s exhaust mixed with domestic gas odors.. I recall it was the only place in Cuba where gas was delivered to houses via underground pipes (in some parts of Havana) and the only place where you can see soooooo many cars in Cuba (remember I was a child that have never seen such a big city so I have no other way to know there were places with 100 times more cars).

Our family went from time to time to Varadero beach, or Santa Lucía Beach in Camagüey, or to Cayo Sabinal (an inhabited key north of Camagüey) or some other places like Sancti Spíritus, Remedios, Trinidad, Santiago, Holguín.

My mother had a car with a monthly allowance of gasoline (coupons) and they saved some of them and we were able to visit some places from time to time. Not that we spent the whole time travelling but we managed to do some tourism from time to time a few times a year. We also had the possibility to rent buses/tours and do some tours to other places of the island (I remember being to Varadero once and to Santiago another time). It was not impossible, just a matter of planning in advance and gathering a group of persons to share the bus and the tour.

I remember staying at hotels that, to me, were fantastic!! Dishes a-la-carte and the beach near the hotels. BTW I visited one of those hotels 2 years ago and I was severely disappointed… I didn’t like it from today’s perspective.

We usually rented a beach property with another family or two to share costs on the rent, we stayed 3 or 4 weeks each time (every worker has 30 days of payed holidays a year).

The cost of life was pretty low but salaries were not high. For example taking a local bus costed 5cents, or for me buying a sweet was like 10cents, or a ham sandwich costed 1cuban peso, a personal pizza was 1.2 the cheese one or 1.8 pesos the ham and cheese one. But my parents’ salary was around 300–340 cuban pesos a month (each) and those 600–700 pesos/month for the family have to be used to pay for electricity, food, dress, gasoline, help my grandparents with some money, buy clothes, and so on and so on.

There were rationed food, I mean food that you bought using your ration card, very cheap and it lasted almost, if not the whole month. We used to visit the food-store assigned to us (bodega) with a small cart to buy the whole month of food for the 4 of us.

We could buy our monthly rations in parts ( I mean small portions every week or so) but somehow my parents preferred to go just once a month and buy everything I guess it was not to waste time going 3 or 4 times in a month there.

What was sold using the ration cards?: rice, beans, sugar, salt, eggs, juca root, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cabbage, lettuce, pumpking, peas, coffee, cooking oil, animal fat, packs of cigarettes, canned food (corned beef, russian beef) and .. sorry I can’t remember other things.. Im pretty sure there were several other Im missing. Oh: soap, detergent, deodorant, and with a different ration card: clothes, shoes, fabric to create your own clothes, buttons, zippers and stuff like that.

milk, meat, fruits, fish and bread (in fact everything that lasted a few hours or days) were bought every day or few days as we needed them or as they showed up as they were (maybe) not available all days, we got like a litter of milk or two every day (I think that before 7 years old you got a litter of milk, we were two kids, after 7 and up to 12 or 14 you got 1 litter every two days) and a loaf of bread for the family of four (a bar like bread in Camagüey, in other cities were a baseball size bread for each one). I remember walking with grandma to the meat shop to buy her (and my grandfather) ration of meat or fish and so on. Every family living in the same house has one ration card: we were 4, we got a ration card, my grandparents were two living in another home, they got 1 ration card for the two. The received product for the two and we received products for the 4 of us. They got special products for eldery people (yogurt, milk, cofee) and we got special products for kids (milk, no cofee, no cigarrettes for kids). We gave my grandparents the cigarretes.

Rationed does not mean that it was everything… nope, not in the 80’s… there were some parallels markets (mercados paralelos) and/or (sorry I can’t remember I was a kid) farmers markets where you could buy at a much higher prices the same food you got rationed and even food you don’t get by your ration cards like ham, cheese, yogurt, maybe chicken, pork and so on.

Prices were higher than the one you get by the ration cards but you were able to acquire whatever was available at that time. For example: a pack of cigarretes by the ration card costed several cents, but you could freely buy the same pack of cigarretes 4 or 5 times the prices if you needed to smoke more that what they gave you via the ration card.

Schools? You were given uniforms a set of uniform for the whole year… we also inherited the uniforms from our cousins or friends so usually you have more than one set. My granma was a seamstress and she used to make a set of “similar” uniforms for me because as a kid … clothes didn’t last a whole year without an accident (a hole, a ripping, ink on it, and so on). We were given books, notebooks, pencils, erasers and I don’t know.. things like that…to do our school works and to study. In my case we had lunch at school (for free, of course!) it was not marvelous but was not bad actually.

Electricity and water went off from time to time, it dependeded on the season or the time of the year. The government made campaigns to save energy. I recall a song they ran on TV and/or radio: “apaga la luz… lulú lulú” (turn off the light, lulú, lulú… a familiar way to call some women based on their firstname). Water in our home arrived some hours a day and we stored it in cans and water tanks, etc and used it to clean the house, to cook, bathing etc … we tried not to waste it because you never know if tomorrow it will arrive. We had a Tinajón, an ancient way to store water in my home city, we actually used it to store water.

I used to walk from home to my primary school like 12 blocks from home and later to my junior high school some 6 to 8 blocks from home.

My dad, near 1990 bought a soviet bicycle for me, same color and shape as this one.. I enjoyed it very much and it was very very VERY useful after a few years when everything went upside down.

Oh yes, we had a “black and white” tv set like this one. I did not know about remote controls until a few years later. Also a radio to listen AM, FM (we had no fm stations in Camaguey) and SW… I used to listen remote SW stations at nights… It was sooo nice (I later became a ham radio operator). Before having a TV set and a radio my father built a radio and later a TV set (he and my mother are telecom engineers) … it is a shame we didn’t preserve it… after we got the TV/radio from the shop we put the home made radio in the kitchen so my mother will listen to radio… it later dissapeared.. I guess. My grandparents inherited the homebuilt tvset and I never followed the track of it after they got a “real” tv from the shop.

As you can see we were not starving nor living a miserable life… (we even got 3 toys a year for every kid, free medicine, free vaccination, free access to physicians, free access to sports events, free access to museums and zoos, etc, etc).

Now… lets talk about the “decline”:

After 1986 things started getting somehow “different”… initially we did not notice it but some things indeed started getting more and more difficult to obtain…. but I guess we assumed things were like this… by 1989 things got actually difficult to obtain but we could still manage to get some of them, mostly food. But it was difficult, for example, to buy clothes or toys. By the end of 1989 no products came from the former COMECON countries and you could notice it because everything started to become scarce.

By late 1990 gasoline was scarce (by late 1991 it was simply impossible to get it).. as well as some things we didn’t notice like for example fertilizers or food for animals. With no fertilizers, no animal food and no gasoline and no imports from former comecon countries, farms products quickly went to almost 0 until farmers re-learnt how to use oxen for plowing, and even there it was still very low supply for the demand as they were not motivated to sell at state prices and in such a crisis it was better to help the family or to keep animals just in case they will need it for eating themselves.

Between the end of 1990 and mid 1992 I guess we survived by using the country’s reserves (reserves of gasoline, rice, and so on) but as you might guess those reserves were enough to supply the country for several months and that was it. By the end of 1992 we were in a total crisis.

By 1990 the government somehow knew things were going upside down and started to prepare/train the population on what they called “Periodo especial en tiempos de paz” (special period during peace time) in which the possibility of getting no external aid at all was considered; named “plan 0” but maybe Im mistaken with the name. That plan 0 was a plan on how to survive in case NOT a single product or drop of fuel will enter the country. Fortunately they were somehow able to buy/bargain some products and we never had the plan 0 levels.. but we were almost near plan 0.

Well… then… things went REALLY very bad for us the population: no food, no gasoline, no new clothes, no new shoes, no electricity, difficulty to get medicines, etc. Just remembering how bad it was makes me………… well the question was about how was like to live in Cuba before that period.

Hope it was interesting.

What should I know before moving to Ecuador?

  • in Quito and Guayaquil you may expect that some people speaks English. But do not expect a large percentage of the population to speak it. So you would like to learn a little bit of Spanish or use hand gestures and signs to communicate.
  • local currency is USD
  • Vacation Rentals, Homes, Experiences & Places – Airbnb.com and Booking.com
  • Uber and Cabify works as well and I recommend them as you will be much more secure than with other transportation means.
  • If you are visiting the highlands (Quito, Ambato, Riobamba, Cuenca, Loja, Ibarra, etc) you don’t have to worry about mosquitoes. But if you visit the jungle or the lowlands you maybe would like to bring a repellent (or buy it here).
  • It is rather cold in highlands (+8 to +10C at nights, +18 to +24C in the afternoons). But it could be rather hot in the lowlands, galapagos islands and jungle (+20 to +36C)
  • If visiting highland cities try to walk slow in the beginning until you get used to the altitude.
  • Food is good (nice in my opinion) and you are plenty of restaurants all around the country. I suggest to enter where you see many people eating. Why? If there are a lot of people eating it means the food “cycle” very often, I mean: it is not stored. So there are good chances it is fresh.
  • There are hospitals and pharmacies all around the country, with big full serviced hospitals in the biggest cities.
  • There is no need to bring your passport everywhere: if you are going to walk around a given city you better leave your personal belongings at your room. Nobody will ask you for your ID and, if they ask, you may ask them to go with you to where you are staying for you to show them your ID. Or better: carry a copy of your ID. Of course: if you are going to fly or to travel to another city it is better to bring your passport with you.
  • If you are going to pay by credit card the seller will ask you for an ID: a drivers license should be enough.
  • Credit cards are not accepted everywhere, but in most of the cities they are accepted at hotels, restaurants, shopping malls, etc. If unsure ask before ordering.
  • Airport is far from the city, like 35kms. Uber works ok as well as cabify. And there are official taxies at the airport. Charges for a trip from the airport to Quito will be around 20 to 30USD depending on the season, time of the day, etc.
  • There are buses as well from the airport to a station in Quito, it will cost a few dollars but I suggest to take a cab if you arrive at night.
  • Oh, the sun raises at around 6am and sets a bit after 6pm, each and eeeeeveeeeeeeryyyy day. We are in the Equator so you will barely notice the difference, it will look the same all year long.
  • What else? if I remember I will edit the question… if you have specific questions just let me know.

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